Alaska Native Allotment Act
The Alaska Native Allotment Act of 1906, 34 Stat. 197, as amended, 43 U.S.C. (1970), enacted on May 17, 1906, permitted individual Alaska Natives to acquire title to up to 160 acres of land in a manner similar to that afforded to Native Americans in the other states and territories of the United States under the General Allotment Act of 1887 (Dawes Act).
However, the General Allotment Act and the Alaska Native Allotment Act, while in some ways similar, differed considerably in their purpose and political circumstances under which they were enacted, and differed in their effects as well.
The Alaska Native Allotment Act was repealed in 1971 with the passage of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA), but with a savings clause that preserved allotment applications still pending on ANCSA's effective date of December 18, 1971.
As of 2001, nearly 300,000 acres were still pending determination of entitlement.
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act
The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, commonly abbreviated ANCSA, was signed into law by President Richard M. Nixon on December 18, 1971, the largest land claims settlement in United States history. ANCSA was intended to resolve the long-standing issues surrounding aboriginal land claims in Alaska, as well as to stimulate economic development throughout Alaska.
The settlement extinguished Alaska Native claims to the land by transferring titles to twelve Alaska Native regional corporations and over 200 local village corporations. A thirteenth regional corporation was later created for Alaska Natives who no longer resided in Alaska.
Among the provisions of ANCSA:
• Native claims to almost all of Alaska were extinguished in exchange for approximately one-ninth of the state's land plus $962.5 million in compensation distributed to 200 local village and 12 Native-owned regional corporations, plus a thirteenth corporation comprising Alaska Natives who had left the state.
• Of the compensation monies, $462.5 million was to come from the federal treasury and the rest from oil revenue-sharing.
• Settlement benefits would accrue to those with at least one-fourth Native ancestry.
• Of the approximately 80,000 Natives enrolled under ANCSA, those living in villages (approximately 2/3rds of the total) would receive 100 shares in both a village and a regional corporation.
• The remaining 1/3rd would be "at large" shareholders with 100 shares in a regional corporation plus additional rights to revenue from regional mineral and timber resources.
• The Alaska Native Allotment Act was revoked and as yet unborn Native children were excluded.
• The twelve regional corporations within the state would administer the settlement.
• A thirteenth corporation composed of Natives who had left the state would receive compensation but not land.
• Surface rights on 44 million acres (178,000 km²) were allotted to the Natives and administered by the Native Corporations.
Alaska Native regional corporations
The following thirteen regional corporations were created under ANCSA:
• Ahtna, Incorporated
• The Aleut Corporation (TAC)
• Arctic Slope Regional Corporation (ASRC)
• Bering Straits Native Corporation (BSNC)
• Bristol Bay Native Corporation (BBNC)
• Calista Corporation
• Chugach Alaska Corporation (CAC)
• Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI)
• Doyon, Limited
• Koniag, Incorporated
• NANA Regional Corporation (NANA)
• Sealaska Corporation
• The 13th Regional Corporation
Also, most of these corporations set up nonprofit corporations of their own. Many separate village corporations were also created by the Act.
Land selection by the State of Alaska under the Statehood Act and for the regional and village corporations has continued through the present.